a view to laying down more clearly the rights and duties of neutral Powers
in case of war on land and regulating the position of the belligerents who
have taken refuge in neutral territory;
likewise desirous of defining the meaning of the term “neutral,”
pending the possibility of settling, in its entirety, the position of
neutral individuals in their relations with the belligerents;
resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, in
consequence, appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries:
after having deposited their full powers, found in good and due form, have
agreed upon the following full powers, found in good and due form, have
agreed upon the following provisions:
CHAPTER I The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers
territory of neutral Powers is inviolable.
are forbidden to move troops or convoys of either munitions of war or
supplies across the territory of a neutral Power.
are likewise forbidden to:
Erect on the territory of a neutral Power a wireless telegraphy station or
other apparatus for the purpose of communicating with belligerent forces
on land or sea;
Use any installation of this kind established by them before the war on
the territory of a neutral Power for purely military purposes, and which
has not been opened for the service of public messages.
of combatants cannot be formed nor recruiting agencies opened on the
territory of a neutral Power to assist the belligerents.
neutral Power must not allow any of the acts referred to in Articles 2 to
4 to occur on its territory.
is not called upon to punish acts in violation of its neutrality unless
the said acts have been committed on its own territory.
responsibility of a neutral Power is not engaged by the fact of persons
crossing the frontier separately to offer their services to one of the
neutral Power is not called upon to prevent the export or transport, on
behalf of one or other of the belligerents, of arms, munitions of war, or,
in general, of anything which can be of use to an army or a fleet.
neutral Power is not called upon to forbid or restrict the use on behalf
of the belligerents of telegraph or telephone cables or of wireless
telegraphy apparatus belonging to it or to companies or private
measure of restriction or prohibition taken by a neutral Power in regard
to the matters referred to in Articles 7 and 8 must be impartially applied
by it to both belligerents.
neutral Power must see to the same obligation being observed by companies
or private individuals owning telegraph or telephone cables or wireless
fact of a neutral Power resisting, even by force, attempts to violate its
neutrality cannot be regarded as a hostile act.
CHAPTER II Belligerents Interned and Wounded Tended in Neutral Territory
neutral Power which receives on its territory troops belonging to the
belligerent armies shall intern them, as far as possible, at a distance
from the theatre of war.
may keep them in camps and even confine them in fortresses or in places
set apart for this purpose.
shall decide whether officers can be left at liberty on giving their
parole not to leave the neutral territory without permission.
the absence of a special convention to the contrary, the neutral Power
shall supply the interned with the food, clothing, and relief required by
the conclusion of peace the expenses caused by the internment shall be
neutral Power which receives escaped prisoners of war shall leave them at
liberty. If it allows them to remain in its territory it may assign them a
place of residence.
same rule applies to prisoners of war brought by troops taking refuge in
the territory of a neutral Power.
neutral Power may authorize the passage over its territory of the sick and
wounded belonging to the belligerent armies, on condition that the trains
bringing them shall carry neither personnel nor war material. In such a
case, the neutral Power is bound to take whatever measures of safety and
control are necessary for the purpose.
sick or wounded brought under the these conditions into neutral territory
by one of the belligerents, and belonging to the hostile party, must be
guarded by the neutral Power so as to ensure their not taking part again
in the military operations. The same duty shall devolve on the neutral
State with regard to wounded or sick of the other army who may be
committed to its care.
Geneva Convention applies to sick and wounded interned in neutral
CHAPTER III Neutral Persons
nationals of a State which is not taking part in the war are considered as
neutral cannot avail himself of his neutrality
If he commits hostile acts against a belligerent;
If he commits acts in favor of a belligerent, particularly if he
voluntarily enlists in the ranks of the armed force of one of the parties.
In such a case, the neutral shall not be more severely treated by the
belligerent as against whom he has abandoned his neutrality than a
national of the other belligerent State could be for the same act.
following acts shall not be considered as committed in favour of one
belligerent in the sense of Article 17, letter (b):
Supplies furnished or loans made to one of the belligerents, provided that
the person who furnishes the supplies or who makes the loans lives neither
in the territory of the other party nor in the territory occupied by him,
and that the supplies do not come from these territories;
Services rendered in matters of police or civil administration.
CHAPTER IV Railway Material
material coming from the territory of neutral Powers, whether it be the
property of the said Powers or of companies or private persons, and
recognizable as such, shall not be requisitioned or utilized by a
belligerent except where and to the extent that it is absolutely
necessary. It shall be sent back as soon possible to the country of
neutral Power may likewise, in case of necessity, retain and utilize to an
equal extent material coming from the territory of the belligerent Power.
shall be paid by one Party or the other in proportion to the material
used, and to the period of usage.
CHAPTER V Final Provisions
provisions of the present Convention do not apply except between
Contracting Powers and then only if all the belligerents are Parties to
present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible.
ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.
first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a procès-verbal
signed by the representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by
the Netherlands Minister for Foreign Affairs.
subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written
notification, addressed to the Netherlands Government and accompanied by
the instrument of ratification.
duly certified copy of the procès-verbal relative to the first deposit of
ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding paragraph,
and of the instruments of ratification shall be immediately sent by the
Netherlands Government, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers
invited to the Second Peace Conference as well as to the other Powers
which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the
preceding paragraph, the said Government shall at the same time inform
them of the date on which it received the notification.
Powers may adhere to the present Convention.
Power which desires to adhere notifies its intention in writing to the
Netherlands Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall
be deposited in the archives of the said Government.
Government shall immediately forward to all the other Powers a duly
certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of adhesion,
mentioning the date on which it received the notification.
present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which
were a Party to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the
date of the proces-verbal of this deposit, and, in the case of the Powers
which ratify subsequently or which adhere, sixty days after the
notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received
by the Netherlands Government.
the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce the present
Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the
Netherlands Government, which shall immediately communicate a duly
certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, informing them
at the same time of the date on which it was received.
denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying Power, and
one year after the notification has reached the Netherlands Government.
register kept by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall give
the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 21,
paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of
adhesion (Article 22, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 24,
paragraph 1) have been received.
Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be
supplied with duly certified extracts from it.
faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures to the